Sundhara; the golden conduit of Bhaktapur Durbar Square

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Sundhara; the golden conduit of Bhaktapur Durbar Square image

Sundhara; the golden conduit of Bhaktapur Durbar Square

Must be in amazement, estimating that where the ordeal Sundhara is in Bhaktapur?

Well, Sundhara is one archaic conduit of Bhaktapur that lies within the Bhaktapur Durbar Square. It aesthetically is a very famous Hiti. Here, Hiti is a term, meaning the taps in the local language. Yes, this conduit that lies beneath the ground level is most commonly known as the Nagpokhari of the Durbar square.

Sundhara of Bhaktapur Durbar Square

Sundhara of Bhaktapur Durbar Square PC: Sameer Shakya

The conduit and its surroundings are all crafted and decorated through the images of serpents. Things might be the probable reason behind calling this golden conduit as Naag Pokhari. But in the studies, this conduit along with the pond was called Sundhara, which literally means the golden conduit.

You might also find people calling it Luhiti, which also means the golden conduit exactly in Nepal Bhasa ( most commonly known as the newari language).

Sundhara, on the other hand, is a symbol of unique aesthetic grace which is as its name is golden. It has one of the most extricating carvings on the mouth of the spout. The head of a non-castrated he-goat and the figures of different animals and Gods posing in that court really make you say, awe-inspiring.

Furthermore, in front of Sundhara, there is a diminutive pond, in the middle of which an image of gold-plated Naag with a wooden pillar does stand. Perhaps, that’s why people also call this arena Naag Pokhari rather than Sundhara.

Well, around the Sundhara and the pond, you can examine the brick thoroughfare with the stonewall enclosed by the amounts of the serpent including numerous figures of Gods and Goddesses.

Thus, it is unique.

About the making of Sundhara

Bhaktapur and its monuments, never stay emptied without an ambiguous and fascinating story. So, the same goes for this Sundhara.

King Jitmitra Malla, who seems to have contributed a lot to making temples, courtyards, and the palace itself was also one of the most creative kings of Bhaktapur. It is said that one night the Goddess Taleju obliged herself before King Jitamitra Malla, in his dream while the construction of the Thanthu royal palace was on, to the east of Taleju temple.

Know more about the Malla kings of Bhaktapur.

She then instructed him to make preparation for fetching water from the Mahadev river of Nagarkot to carry out the periodic worship of Taleju in the palace.

Consequently, water was then collected from around the smaller streams originating from Mahadev mountain in big storage. It was then diverted into a pond for necessary treatment and finally brought to the golden spout inside the palace through the Royal Cannel (Raj Kulo).

(That pond might be called today’s Mahadev Pokhari, where every year, on the month of Poush/Magh, devotees come and take bath as well as worship at the nearby Mahadev temple.)

The initiated work of constructing Sundhara along with the pond was begun in 1678 (798 Nepal Sambat) and completed in 1683 (803Nepal Sambat).

There is an even more impressive story recounted about this Sundhara. As per the anecdote, on the inauguration day of this Sundhara and pond, religious worship was offered to the Taleju Goddess invoking Tantrik Shakti, and a pair of white ducks were left to flow through this spout.

Legend has it that these ducks easily passed through the mouth of Sundhara turning into a smaller size. They were seen swimming in the pond. This process of appearing and disappearing of these ducks was said to be observed till some generations of the Malla period.

Sundhara of Bhaktapur Durbar Square

Sundhara of Bhaktapur Durbar Square

More about the Sundhara

  • The earliest water source of this conduit was Mahadev Pokhari, Nagarkot which later was taken over by the modern piped system.
  • However, amid the disruption of Raj Kulo, Sundhara also lost its natural source of water, and today, the modern piped system has been enlarged with the existing infrastructure of Sundhara. Though the water supply is limited and the water streams, for a few hours in the morning and evening for religious worship which also seems not regular.
  • The water Sundhara was used for the worship of the Thanthu palace. Also, the king and queen used to take bath in this conduit before leaving to have a rest near the Khopi (resting room).
  • The water of this conduit is still used to worship the Goddess Taleju. However, sometimes, the irregularity of the water flow compels to use of the encaged pond water nearby for religious worship in the Taleju temple.


Research paper on water and culture-Ganesh Khaniya


Yes, it lies within the Bhaktapur Durbar Square. You must enter the Golden gate to reach this place.

Yes, you can.

The Sundhara of Bhaktapur Durbar Square, popularly known as Naagpokhari has this beautiful conduit decorated with some mythological creatures. Besides, there is a pond that is said to be used by the queen in the past. And, there are a lot of myths related to the pond.

The entrance fee to enter Bhaktapur Durbar Square varies as per nationality. It costs, Rs.1500 for Non-SAARC nationality, Rs.500 to SAARC, and for Chinese citizens, and free for the Nepalese.

No, you don’t need to pay for your infant. In fact, it is free entry to children below 10 years of each national at Bhaktapur Durbar Square.

It would be a pleasure to sneak around Bhaktapur Durbar Square. It doesn’t matter when you will visit there. But if you are interested in temples and worshipping then the morning would be the best time to be present there.

Yes, there are restaurants and cafes on-site, convenient for all kinds of visitors.

While being in Bhaktapur, you must mind a few things like taking out of your shoes while entering the temple and other religious sites. Likewise, you might not be allowed to click pictures of some specific events or places. You should consider these things.

As we informed you earlier it is all safe for solo travelling which means you can travel without a guide. But we also recommend you to have a certified guide who would help you to understand the authentic Bhaktapur and the stories carved all over the monuments.


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  • Bhaktapur Durbar Square, Bhaktapur Municipality, Bhaktapur District, Nepal.

  • 27.672654, 85.428699
View on Google Maps


  • (That pond might be called today's Mahadev Pokhari, where every year, on the month of Poush/Magh, devotees come and take bath as well as worship at the nearby Mahadev temple.)

  • It is also called Luhiti.

Other places around Bhaktapur Durbar Square

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